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Genes Involved in Stress Response and Especially in Phytoalexin Biosynthesis Are Upregulated in Four Malus Genotypes in Response to Apple Replant Disease

  • Apple replant disease (ARD) is a soil-borne disease, which is of particular importance for fruit tree nurseries and fruit growers. The disease manifests by a poor vegetative development, stunted growth, and reduced yield in terms of quantity and quality, if apple plants (usually rootstocks) are replanted several times at the same site. Genotype-specific differences in the reaction of apple plants to ARD are documented, but less is known about the genetic mechanisms behind this symptomatology. Recent transcriptome analyses resulted in a number of candidate genes possibly involved in the plant response. In the present study, the expression of 108 selected candidate genes was investigated in root and leaf tissue of four different apple genotypes grown in untreated ARD soil and ARD soil disinfected by γ-irradiation originating from two different sites in Germany. Thirty-nine out of the 108 candidate genes were differentially expressed in roots by taking a p-value of < 0.05 and a fold change of > 1.5 as cutoff. Sixteen genes were more than 4.5-fold upregulated in roots of plants grown in ARD soil. The four genes MNL2 (putative mannosidase); ALF5 (multi antimicrobial extrusion protein); UGT73B4 (uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferase 73B4), and ECHI (chitin-binding) were significantly upregulated in roots. These genes seem to be related to the host plant response to ARD, although they have never been described in this context before. Six of the highly upregulated genes belong to the phytoalexin biosynthesis pathway. Their genotype-specific gene expression pattern was consistent with the phytoalexin content measured in roots. The biphenyl synthase (BIS) genes were found to be useful as early biomarkers for ARD, because their expression pattern correlated well with the phenotypic reaction of the Malus genotypes investigated.

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Document Type:Article
Author:Stefanie Reim, Annmarie-Deetja Rohr, Traud Winkelmann, Stefan Weiß, Benye Liu, Ludger Beerhues, Michaela Schmitz, Magda-Viola Hanke, Henryk Flachowsky
Parent Title (English):Frontiers in Plant Science
Article Number:1724
Publisher:Frontiers Media
Place of publication:Lausanne
Publishing Institution:Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg
Date of first publication:2020/02/28
Copyright:© 2020 Reim, Rohr, Winkelmann, Weiß, Liu, Beerhues, Schmitz, Hanke and Flachowsky. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
Funding Information:This work was part of the project BonaRes-ORDIAmur funded by the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education within the frame of the program BonaRes (grant no. 031B0025B). It was also funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) via the research training group GRK1798 “Signaling at the Plant-Soil Interface” and a grant to BL and LB (BE 1174/19-1).
Keyword:BioMark HD microfluidic system; Gene expression; Malus genotypes; apple replant disease (ARD); greenhouse bio-test; high-throughput qRT-PCR; phytoalexins; soil properties
Departments, institutes and facilities:Fachbereich Angewandte Naturwissenschaften
Projects:BonaRes (Modul A): ORDIAmur - Überwindung der Nachbaukrankheit mithilfe eines integrierten Ansatzes; Teilprojekt H (DE/BMBF/031B0025H)
Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC):5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 58 Pflanzen (Botanik) / 580 Pflanzen (Botanik)
6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 63 Landwirtschaft / 634 Obstanlagen, Früchte, Forstwirtschaft
Entry in this database:2020/03/10
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International