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Off-lattice Boltzmann methods increase the flexibility and applicability of lattice Boltzmann methods by decoupling the discretizations of time, space, and particle velocities. However, the velocity sets that are mostly used in off-lattice Boltzmann simulations were originally tailored to on-lattice Boltzmann methods. In this contribution, we show how the accuracy and efficiency of weakly and fully compressible semi-Lagrangian off-lattice Boltzmann simulations is increased by velocity sets derived from cubature rules, i.e. multivariate quadratures, which have not been produced by the Gauss-product rule. In particular, simulations of 2D shock-vortex interactions indicate that the cubature-derived degree-nine D2Q19 velocity set is capable to replace the Gauss-product rule-derived D2Q25. Likewise, the degree-five velocity sets D3Q13 and D3Q21, as well as a degree-seven D3V27 velocity set were successfully tested for 3D Taylor-Green vortex flows to challenge and surpass the quality of the customary D3Q27 velocity set. In compressible 3D Taylor-Green vortex flows with Mach numbers Ma={0.5;1.0;1.5;2.0} on-lattice simulations with velocity sets D3Q103 and D3V107 showed only limited stability, while the off-lattice degree-nine D3Q45 velocity set accurately reproduced the kinetic energy provided by literature.

The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is an efficient simulation technique for computational fluid mechanics and beyond. It is based on a simple stream-and-collide algorithm on Cartesian grids, which is easily compatible with modern machine learning architectures. While it is becoming increasingly clear that deep learning can provide a decisive stimulus for classical simulation techniques, recent studies have not addressed possible connections between machine learning and LBM. Here, we introduce Lettuce, a PyTorch-based LBM code with a threefold aim. Lettuce enables GPU accelerated calculations with minimal source code, facilitates rapid prototyping of LBM models, and enables integrating LBM simulations with PyTorch's deep learning and automatic differentiation facility. As a proof of concept for combining machine learning with the LBM, a neural collision model is developed, trained on a doubly periodic shear layer and then transferred to a different flow, a decaying turbulence. We also exemplify the added benefit of PyTorch's automatic differentiation framework in flow control and optimization. To this end, the spectrum of a forced isotropic turbulence is maintained without further constraining the velocity field.

Off-lattice Boltzmann methods increase the flexibility and applicability of lattice Boltzmann methods by decoupling the discretizations of time, space, and particle velocities. However, the velocity sets that are mostly used in off-lattice Boltzmann simulations were originally tailored to on-lattice Boltzmann methods. In this contribution, we show how the accuracy and efficiency of weakly and fully compressible semi-Lagrangian off-lattice Boltzmann simulations is increased by velocity sets derived from cubature rules, i.e. multivariate quadratures, which have not been produced by the Gauß-product rule. In particular, simulations of 2D shock-vortex interactions indicate that the cubature-derived degree-nine D2Q19 velocity set is capable to replace the Gauß-product rule-derived D2Q25. Likewise, the degree-five velocity sets D3Q13 and D3Q21, as well as a degree-seven D3V27 velocity set were successfully tested for 3D Taylor–Green vortex flows to challenge and surpass the quality of the customary D3Q27 velocity set. In compressible 3D Taylor–Green vortex flows with Mach numbers on-lattice simulations with velocity sets D3Q103 and D3V107 showed only limited stability, while the off-lattice degree-nine D3Q45 velocity set accurately reproduced the kinetic energy provided by literature.

In this contribution, we perform computer simulations to expedite the development of hydrogen storages based on metal hydride. These simulations enable in-depth analysis of the processes within the systems which otherwise could not be achieved. That is, because the determination of crucial process properties require measurement instruments in the setup which are currently not available. Therefore, we investigate the reliability of reaction values that are determined by a design of experiments.
Specifically, we first explain our model setup in detail. We define the mathematical terms to obtain insights into the thermal processes and reaction kinetics. We then compare the simulated results to measurements of a 5-gram sample consisting of iron-titanium-manganese (FeTiMn) to obtain the values with the highest agreement with the experimental data. In addition, we improve the model by replacing the commonly used Van’t-Hoff equation by a mathematical expression of the pressure-composition-isotherms (PCI) to calculate the equilibrium pressure.
Finally, the parameters’ accuracy is checked in yet another with an existing metal hydride system. The simulated results demonstrate high concordance with experimental data, which advocate the usage of approximated kinetic reaction properties by a design of experiments for further design studies. Furthermore, we are able to determine process parameters like the entropy and enthalpy.