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Design optimization techniques are often used at the beginning of the design process to explore the space of possible designs. In these domains illumination algorithms, such as MAP-Elites, are promising alternatives to classic optimization algorithms because they produce diverse, high-quality solutions in a single run, instead of only a single near-optimal solution. Unfortunately, these algorithms currently require a large number of function evaluations, limiting their applicability. In this article we introduce a new illumination algorithm, Surrogate-Assisted Illumination (SAIL), that leverages surrogate modeling techniques to create a map of the design space according to user-defined features while minimizing the number of fitness evaluations. On a two-dimensional airfoil optimization problem SAIL produces hundreds of diverse but high-performing designs with several orders of magnitude fewer evaluations than MAP-Elites or CMA-ES. We demonstrate that SAIL is also capable of producing maps of high-performing designs in realistic three-dimensional aerodynamic tasks with an accurate flow simulation. Data-efficient design exploration with SAIL can help designers understand what is possible, beyond what is optimal, by considering more than pure objective-based optimization.

The MAP-Elites algorithm produces a set of high-performing solutions that vary according to features defined by the user. This technique to 'illuminate' the problem space through the lens of chosen features has the potential to be a powerful tool for exploring design spaces, but is limited by the need for numerous evaluations. The Surrogate-Assisted Illumination (SAIL) algorithm, introduced here, integrates approximative models and intelligent sampling of the objective function to minimize the number of evaluations required by MAP-Elites.
The ability of SAIL to efficiently produce both accurate models and diverse high-performing solutions is illustrated on a 2D airfoil design problem. The search space is divided into bins, each holding a design with a different combination of features. In each bin SAIL produces a better performing solution than MAP-Elites, and requires several orders of magnitude fewer evaluations. The CMA-ES algorithm was used to produce an optimal design in each bin: with the same number of evaluations required by CMA-ES to find a near-optimal solution in a single bin, SAIL finds solutions of similar quality in every bin.

A new method for design space exploration and optimization, Surrogate-Assisted Illumination (SAIL), is presented. Inspired by robotics techniques designed to produce diverse repertoires of behaviors for use in damage recovery, SAIL produces diverse designs that vary according to features specified by the designer. By producing high-performing designs with varied combinations of user-defined features a map of the design space is created. This map illuminates the relationship between the chosen features and performance, and can aid designers in identifying promising design concepts. SAIL is designed for use with compu-tationally expensive design problems, such as fluid or structural dynamics, and integrates approximative models and intelligent sampling of the objective function to minimize the number of function evaluations required. On a 2D airfoil optimization problem SAIL is shown to produce hundreds of diverse designs which perform competitively with those found by state-of-the-art black box optimization. Its capabilities are further illustrated in a more expensive 3D aerodynamic optimization task.

The MAP-Elites algorithm produces a set of high-performing solutions that vary according to features defined by the user. This technique has the potential to be a powerful tool for design space exploration, but is limited by the need for numerous evaluations. The Surrogate-Assisted Illumination algorithm (SAIL), introduced here, integrates approximative models and intelligent sampling of the objective function to minimize the number of evaluations required by MAP-Elites.
The ability of SAIL to efficiently produce both accurate models and diverse high performing solutions is illustrated on a 2D airfoil design problem. The search space is divided into bins, each holding a design with a different combination of features. In each bin SAIL produces a better performing solution than MAP-Elites, and requires several orders of magnitude fewer evaluations. The CMA-ES algorithm was used to produce an optimal design in each bin: with the same number of evaluations required by CMA-ES to find a near-optimal solution in a single bin, SAIL finds solutions of similar quality in every bin.

Are quality diversity algorithms better at generating stepping stones than objective-based search?
(2019)

Surrogate-assistance approaches have long been used in computationally expensive domains to improve the data-efficiency of optimization algorithms. Neuroevolution, however, has so far resisted the application of these techniques because it requires the surrogate model to make fitness predictions based on variable topologies, instead of a vector of parameters. Our main insight is that we can sidestep this problem by using kernel-based surrogate models, which require only the definition of a distance measure between individuals. Our second insight is that the well-established Neuroevolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT) algorithm provides a computationally efficient distance measure between dissimilar networks in the form of "compatibility distance", initially designed to maintain topological diversity. Combining these two ideas, we introduce a surrogate-assisted neuroevolution algorithm that combines NEAT and a surrogate model built using a compatibility distance kernel. We demonstrate the data-efficiency of this new algorithm on the low dimensional cart-pole swing-up problem, as well as the higher dimensional half-cheetah running task. In both tasks the surrogate-assisted variant achieves the same or better results with several times fewer function evaluations as the original NEAT.

Maximal covering location problems have efficiently been solved using evolutionary computation. The multi-stage placement of charging stations for electric cars is an instance of this problem which is addressed in this study. It is particularly challenging, because a final solution is constructed in multiple steps, stations cannot be relocated easily and intermediate solutions should be optimal with respect to certain objectives.

Surrogate models are used to reduce the burden of expensive-to-evaluate objective functions in optimization. By creating models which map genomes to objective values, these models can estimate the performance of unknown inputs, and so be used in place of expensive objective functions. Evolutionary techniques such as genetic programming or neuroevolution commonly alter the structure of the genome itself. A lack of consistency in the genotype is a fatal blow to data-driven modeling techniques: interpolation between points is impossible without a common input space. However, while the dimensionality of genotypes may differ across individuals, in many domains, such as controllers or classifiers, the dimensionality of the input and output remains constant. In this work we leverage this insight to embed differing neural networks into the same input space. To judge the difference between the behavior of two neural networks, we give them both the same input sequence, and examine the difference in output. This difference, the phenotypic distance, can then be used to situate these networks into a common input space, allowing us to produce surrogate models which can predict the performance of neural networks regardless of topology. In a robotic navigation task, we show that models trained using this phenotypic embedding perform as well or better as those trained on the weight values of a fixed topology neural network. We establish such phenotypic surrogate models as a promising and flexible approach which enables surrogate modeling even for representations that undergo structural changes.

A novel approach to produce 2D designs by adapting the HyperNEAT algorithm to evolve non-uniform rational basis splines (NURBS) is presented. This representation is proposed as an alternative to previous pixel-based approaches primarily motivated by aesthetic interests, and not designed for optimization tasks. This spline representation outperforms previous pixel-based approaches on target matching tasks, performing well even in matching irregular target shapes. In addition to improved evolvability in the face of a well defined fitness metric, a NURBS representation has the added virtues of being continuous rather than discrete, as well as being intuitive and easily modified by graphic and industrial designers.

An evolved neural network controller is presented to solve the optimal control problem for energy optimal driving. A controller is produced which computes equivalent control commands to traditional graph searching approaches, while able to adapt to varied constraints and conditions. Furthermore, after training, trivial amounts of computation time and memory are required, making the approach applicable for embedded systems and path planning applications.

An evolutionary algorithm is presented to solve the optimal control problem for energy optimal driving. Results show that the algorithm computes equivalent strategies as traditional graph searching approaches like dynamic programming or A*. The algorithm proves to be time efficient while saving multiple orders of magnitude in memory compared to graph searching techniques. Thereby making it applicable in embedded applications such as eco-driving assistants or intelligent route planning.

Not all neural network architectures are created equal, some perform much better than others for certain tasks. But how important are the weight parameters of a neural network compared to its architecture? In this work, we question to what extent neural network architectures alone, without learning any weight parameters, can encode solutions for a given task. We propose a search method for neural network architectures that can already perform a task without any explicit weight training. To evaluate these networks, we populate the connections with a single shared weight parameter sampled from a uniform random distribution, and measure the expected performance. We demonstrate that our method can find minimal neural network architectures that can perform several reinforcement learning tasks without weight training. On a supervised learning domain, we find network architectures that achieve much higher than chance accuracy on MNIST using random weights. Interactive version of this paper at https://weightagnostic.github.io/