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Off-lattice Boltzmann methods increase the flexibility and applicability of lattice Boltzmann methods by decoupling the discretizations of time, space, and particle velocities. However, the velocity sets that are mostly used in off-lattice Boltzmann simulations were originally tailored to on-lattice Boltzmann methods. In this contribution, we show how the accuracy and efficiency of weakly and fully compressible semi-Lagrangian off-lattice Boltzmann simulations is increased by velocity sets derived from cubature rules, i.e. multivariate quadratures, which have not been produced by the Gauss-product rule. In particular, simulations of 2D shock-vortex interactions indicate that the cubature-derived degree-nine D2Q19 velocity set is capable to replace the Gauss-product rule-derived D2Q25. Likewise, the degree-five velocity sets D3Q13 and D3Q21, as well as a degree-seven D3V27 velocity set were successfully tested for 3D Taylor-Green vortex flows to challenge and surpass the quality of the customary D3Q27 velocity set. In compressible 3D Taylor-Green vortex flows with Mach numbers Ma={0.5;1.0;1.5;2.0} on-lattice simulations with velocity sets D3Q103 and D3V107 showed only limited stability, while the off-lattice degree-nine D3Q45 velocity set accurately reproduced the kinetic energy provided by literature.

Turbulent compressible flows are traditionally simulated using explicit time integrators applied to discretized versions of the Navier-Stokes equations. However, the associated Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition severely restricts the maximum time-step size. Exploiting the Lagrangian nature of the Boltzmann equation’s material derivative, we now introduce a feasible three-dimensional semi-Lagrangian lattice Boltzmann method (SLLBM), which circumvents this restriction. While many lattice Boltzmann methods for compressible flows were restricted to two dimensions due to the enormous number of discrete velocities in three dimensions, the SLLBM uses only 45 discrete velocities. Based on compressible Taylor-Green vortex simulations we show that the new method accurately captures shocks or shocklets as well as turbulence in 3D without utilizing additional filtering or stabilizing techniques other than the filtering introduced by the interpolation, even when the time-step sizes are up to two orders of magnitude larger compared to simulations in the literature. Our new method therefore enables researchers to study compressible turbulent flows by a fully explicit scheme, whose range of admissible time-step sizes is dictated by physics rather than spatial discretization.

This work thoroughly investigates a semi-Lagrangian lattice Boltzmann (SLLBM) solver for compressible flows. In contrast to other LBM for compressible flows, the vertices are organized in cells, and interpolation polynomials up to fourth order are used to attain the off-vertex distribution function values. Differing from the recently introduced Particles on Demand (PoD) method , the method operates in a static, non-moving reference frame. Yet the SLLBM in the present formulation grants supersonic flows and exhibits a high degree of Galilean invariance. The SLLBM solver allows for an independent time step size due to the integration along characteristics and for the use of unusual velocity sets, like the D2Q25, which is constructed by the roots of the fifth-order Hermite polynomial. The properties of the present model are shown in diverse example simulations of a two-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex, a Sod shock tube, a two-dimensional Riemann problem and a shock-vortex interaction. It is shown that the cell-based interpolation and the use of Gauss-Lobatto-Chebyshev support points allow for spatially high-order solutions and minimize the mass loss caused by the interpolation. Transformed grids in the shock-vortex interaction show the general applicability to non-uniform grids.

Stably stratified Taylor–Green vortex simulations are performed by lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM) and compared to other recent works using Navier–Stokes solvers. The density variation is modeled with a separate distribution function in addition to the particle distribution function modeling the flow physics. Different stencils, forcing schemes, and collision models are tested and assessed. The overall agreement of the lattice Boltzmann solutions with reference solutions from other works is very good, even when no explicit subgrid model is used, but the quality depends on the LBM setup. Although the LBM forcing scheme is not decisive for the quality of the solution, the choice of the collision model and of the stencil are crucial for adequate solutions in underresolved conditions. The LBM simulations confirm the suppression of vertical flow motion for decreasing initial Froude numbers. To gain further insight into buoyancy effects, energy decay, dissipation rates, and flux coefficients are evaluated using the LBM model for various Froude numbers.

This work introduces a semi-Lagrangian lattice Boltzmann (SLLBM) solver for compressible flows (with or without discontinuities). It makes use of a cell-wise representation of the simulation domain and utilizes interpolation polynomials up to fourth order to conduct the streaming step. The SLLBM solver allows for an independent time step size due to the absence of a time integrator and for the use of unusual velocity sets, like a D2Q25, which is constructed by the roots of the fifth-order Hermite polynomial. The properties of the proposed model are shown in diverse example simulations of a Sod shock tube, a two-dimensional Riemann problem and a shock-vortex interaction. It is shown that the cell-based interpolation and the use of Gauss-Lobatto-Chebyshev support points allow for spatially high-order solutions and minimize the mass loss caused by the interpolation. Transformed grids in the shock-vortex interaction show the general applicability to non-uniform grids.

The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is an efficient simulation technique for computational fluid mechanics and beyond. It is based on a simple stream-and-collide algorithm on Cartesian grids, which is easily compatible with modern machine learning architectures. While it is becoming increasingly clear that deep learning can provide a decisive stimulus for classical simulation techniques, recent studies have not addressed possible connections between machine learning and LBM. Here, we introduce Lettuce, a PyTorch-based LBM code with a threefold aim. Lettuce enables GPU accelerated calculations with minimal source code, facilitates rapid prototyping of LBM models, and enables integrating LBM simulations with PyTorch's deep learning and automatic differentiation facility. As a proof of concept for combining machine learning with the LBM, a neural collision model is developed, trained on a doubly periodic shear layer and then transferred to a different flow, a decaying turbulence. We also exemplify the added benefit of PyTorch's automatic differentiation framework in flow control and optimization. To this end, the spectrum of a forced isotropic turbulence is maintained without further constraining the velocity field.

Off-lattice Boltzmann methods increase the flexibility and applicability of lattice Boltzmann methods by decoupling the discretizations of time, space, and particle velocities. However, the velocity sets that are mostly used in off-lattice Boltzmann simulations were originally tailored to on-lattice Boltzmann methods. In this contribution, we show how the accuracy and efficiency of weakly and fully compressible semi-Lagrangian off-lattice Boltzmann simulations is increased by velocity sets derived from cubature rules, i.e. multivariate quadratures, which have not been produced by the Gauß-product rule. In particular, simulations of 2D shock-vortex interactions indicate that the cubature-derived degree-nine D2Q19 velocity set is capable to replace the Gauß-product rule-derived D2Q25. Likewise, the degree-five velocity sets D3Q13 and D3Q21, as well as a degree-seven D3V27 velocity set were successfully tested for 3D Taylor–Green vortex flows to challenge and surpass the quality of the customary D3Q27 velocity set. In compressible 3D Taylor–Green vortex flows with Mach numbers on-lattice simulations with velocity sets D3Q103 and D3V107 showed only limited stability, while the off-lattice degree-nine D3Q45 velocity set accurately reproduced the kinetic energy provided by literature.

The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) stands apart from conventional macroscopic approaches due to its low numerical dissipation and reduced computational cost, attributed to a simple streaming and local collision step. While this property makes the method particularly attractive for applications such as direct noise computation, it also renders the method highly susceptible to instabilities. A vast body of literature exists on stability-enhancing techniques, which can be categorized into selective filtering, regularized LBM, and multi-relaxation time (MRT) models. Although each technique bolsters stability by adding numerical dissipation, they act on different modes. Consequently, there is not a universal scheme optimally suited for a wide range of different flows. The reason for this lies in the static nature of these methods; they cannot adapt to local or global flow features. Still, adaptive filtering using a shear sensor constitutes an exception to this. For this reason, we developed a novel collision operator that uses space- and time-variant collision rates associated with the bulk viscosity. These rates are optimized by a physically informed neural net. In this study, the training data consists of a time series of different instances of a 2D barotropic vortex solution, obtained from a high-order Navier–Stokes solver that embodies desirable numerical features. For this specific text case our results demonstrate that the relaxation times adapt to the local flow and show a dependence on the velocity field. Furthermore, the novel collision operator demonstrates a better stability-to-precision ratio and outperforms conventional techniques that use an empirical constant for the bulk viscosity.

Quality diversity algorithms can be used to efficiently create a diverse set of solutions to inform engineers' intuition. But quality diversity is not efficient in very expensive problems, needing 100.000s of evaluations. Even with the assistance of surrogate models, quality diversity needs 100s or even 1000s of evaluations, which can make it use infeasible. In this study we try to tackle this problem by using a pre-optimization strategy on a lower-dimensional optimization problem and then map the solutions to a higher-dimensional case. For a use case to design buildings that minimize wind nuisance, we show that we can predict flow features around 3D buildings from 2D flow features around building footprints. For a diverse set of building designs, by sampling the space of 2D footprints with a quality diversity algorithm, a predictive model can be trained that is more accurate than when trained on a set of footprints that were selected with a space-filling algorithm like the Sobol sequence. Simulating only 16 buildings in 3D, a set of 1024 building designs with low predicted wind nuisance is created. We show that we can produce better machine learning models by producing training data with quality diversity instead of using common sampling techniques. The method can bootstrap generative design in a computationally expensive 3D domain and allow engineers to sweep the design space, understanding wind nuisance in early design phases.

Transition point prediction in a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model: Forcing scheme dependencies
(2018)

Turbulent compressible flows are traditionally simulated using explicit Eulerian time integration applied to the Navier-Stokes equations. However, the associated Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition severely restricts the maximum time step size. Exploiting the Lagrangian nature of the Boltzmann equation's material derivative, we now introduce a feasible three-dimensional semi-Lagrangian lattice Boltzmann method (SLLBM), which elegantly circumvents this restriction. Previous lattice Boltzmann methods for compressible flows were mostly restricted to two dimensions due to the enormous number of discrete velocities needed in three dimensions. In contrast, this Rapid Communication demonstrates how cubature rules enhance the SLLBM to yield a three-dimensional velocity set with only 45 discrete velocities. Based on simulations of a compressible Taylor-Green vortex we show that the new method accurately captures shocks or shocklets as well as turbulence in 3D without utilizing additional filtering or stabilizing techniques, even when the time step sizes are up to two orders of magnitude larger compared to simulations in the literature. Our new method therefore enables researchers for the first time to study compressible turbulent flows by a fully explicit scheme, whose range of admissible time step sizes is only dictated by physics, while being decoupled from the spatial discretization.