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This paper investigates the effect of voltage sensors on the measurement of transient voltages for power semiconductors in a Double Pulse Test (DPT) environment.We adapt previously published models that were developed for current sensors and apply them to voltage sensors to evaluate their suitability for DPT applications. Similarities and differences between transient current and voltage sensors are investigated and the resulting methodology is applied to commercially available and experimental voltage sensors. Finally, a selection aid for given measurement tasks is derived that focuses on the measurement of fast-switching power semiconductors.

The design of a fully superconducting wind power generator is influenced by several factors. Among them, a low number of pole pairs is desirable to achieve low AC losses in the superconducting stator winding, which greatly influences the cooling system design and, consecutively, the efficiency of the entire wind power plant. However, it has been identified that a low number of pole pairs in a superconducting generator tends to greatly increase its output voltage, which in turn creates challenging conditions for the necessary power electronic converter. This study highlights the interdependencies between the design of a fully superconducting 10 MW wind power generator and the corresponding design of its power electronic converter.

Comparing Armature Windings for a 10 MW Fully Superconducting Synchronous Wind Turbine Generator
(2022)

The need for innovation around the control functions of inverters is great. PV inverters were initially expected to be passive followers of the grid and to disconnect as soon as abnormal conditions happened. Since future power systems will be dominated by generation and storage resources interfaced through inverters these converters must move from following to forming and sustaining the grid. As “digital natives” PV inverters can also play an important role in the digitalisation of distribution networks. In this short review we identified a large potential to make the PV inverter the smart local hub in a distributed energy system. At the micro level, costs and coordination can be improved with bidirectional inverters between the AC grid and PV production, stationary storage, car chargers and DC loads. At the macro level the distributed nature of PV generation means that the same devices will support both to the local distribution network and to the global stability of the grid. Much success has been obtained in the former. The later remains a challenge, in particular in terms of scaling. Yet there is some urgency in researching and demonstrating such solutions. And while digitalisation offers promise in all control aspects it also raises significant cybersecurity concerns.

The recent transformation of the energy sector brings new challenges in areas such as supply security, efficiency, and reliability. Especially the increase of decentralized power plants leads to a more complex energy system and an increasing complexity. This requires expansion and digitization of the power grid as well as an initiative-taking operation of the grid operator. To investigate such complex systems and its phenomena, modern development methods such as real-time simulation or digital twins (DT) can be used. In this approach a digital replica of the real-world system, a grid section, is developed, which can represent or predict the behavior of the real distribution grid. For this, a model of the real-world system is derived and implemented in a co-simulation environment, in which it receives data via an analyzer or measurement system from the grid model. This paper focuses on the development of the digital twin of a testing grid and a grid analyzer for the measurement. With the digital twin of the testing grid, a first approach is achieved in a real-time capable environment showing the functionalities and interactions of a digital twin. Subsequently the development of the digital twin model is explained, and the results are discussed.

Suitability of Current Sensors for the Measurement of Switching Currents in Power Semiconductors
(2021)

This paper investigates the impact of current sensors on the measurement of transient currents in fast-switching power semiconductors in a double pulse test (DPT environment. We review previous research that assesses the influence of current sensors on a DPT circuit through mathematical modeling. The developed selection aids can be used to identify suitable current sensors for transient current measurements of fast-switching power semiconductors and to estimate the error introduced by their insertion into the DPT circuit. Afterwards, this analysis is extended by including further elements from real DPT applications to increase the consistency of the error estimation with practical situations and setups. Both methods are compared and their individual advantages and drawbacks are discussed. Finally, a recommendation on when to use which method is derived.

Design of a Medium Voltage Generator with DC-Cascade for High Power Wind Energy Conversion Systems
(2021)

This paper shows a new concept to generate medium voltage (MV) in wind power application to avoid an additional transformer. Therefore, the generator must be redesigned with additional constraints and a new topology for the power rectifier system by using multiple low voltage (LV) power rectifiers connected in series and parallel to increase the DC output voltage. The combination of parallel and series connection of rectifiers is further introduced as DC-cascade. With the resulting DC-cascade, medium output voltage is achieved with low voltage rectifiers and without a bulky transformer. This approach to form a DC-cascade reduces the effort required to achieve medium DC voltage with a simple rectifier system. In this context, a suitable DC-cascade control was presented and verified with a laboratory test setup. A gearless synchronous generator, which is highly segmented so that each segment can be connected to its own power rectifier, is investigated. Due to the mixed AC and DC voltage given by the DC-cascade structure, it becomes more demanding to the design of the generator insulation, which influences the copper fill factor and the design of the cooling system. A design strategy for the overall generator design is carried out considering the new boundary conditions.