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Modeling of Creep Behavior of Particulate Composites with Focus on Interfacial Adhesion Effect
(2022)

Evaluation of creep compliance of particulate composites using empirical models always provides parameters depending on initial stress and material composition. The effort spent to connect model parameters with physical properties has not resulted in success yet. Further, during the creep, delamination between matrix and filler may occur depending on time and initial stress, reducing an interface adhesion and load transfer to filler particles. In this paper, the creep compliance curves of glass beads reinforced poly(butylene terephthalate) composites were fitted with Burgers and Findley models providing different sets of time-dependent model parameters for each initial stress. Despite the finding that the Findley model performs well in a primary creep, the Burgers model is more suitable if secondary creep comes into play; they allow only for a qualitative prediction of creep behavior because the interface adhesion and its time dependency is an implicit, hidden parameter. As Young’s modulus is a parameter of these models (and the majority of other creep models), it was selected to be introduced as a filler content-dependent parameter with the help of the cube in cube elementary volume approach of Paul. The analysis led to the time-dependent creep compliance that depends only on the time-dependent creep of the matrix and the normalized particle distance (or the filler volume content), and it allowed accounting for the adhesion effect. Comparison with the experimental data confirmed that the elementary volume-based creep compliance function can be used to predict the realistic creep behavior of particulate composites.

The cube in cube approach was used by Paul and Ishai-Cohen to model and derive formulas for filler content dependent Young's moduli of particle filled composites assuming perfect filler matrix adhesion. Their formulas were chosen because of their simplicity, and recalculated using an elementary volume approach which transforms spherical inclusions to cubic inclusions. The EV approach led to expression of the composites moduli that allows introducing an adhesion factor kadh ranging from 0 and 1 to take into account reduced filler matrix adhesion. This adhesion factor scales the edge length of the cubic inclusions, thus reducing the stress transfer area between matrix and filler. Fitting the experimental data with the modified Paul model provides reasonable kadh for PA66, PBT, PP, PE-LD and BR which are in line with their surface energies. Further analysis showed that stiffening only occurs if kadh exceeds [Formula: see text] and depends on the ratio of matrix modulus and filler modulus. The modified model allows for a quick calculation of any particle filled composites for known matrix modulus EM, filler modulus EF, filler volume content vF and adhesion factor kadh. Thus, finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of any particle filled polymer parts as well as materials selection are significantly eased. FEA of cubic and hexagonal EV arrangements show that stress distributions within the EV exhibit more shear stresses if one deviates from the cubic arrangement. At high filler contents the assumption that the property of the EV is representative for the whole composite, holds only for filler volume contents up to 15 or 20% (corresponding to 30 to 40 weight %). Thus, for vast majority of commercially available particulate composites, the modified model can be applied. Furthermore, this indicates that the cube in cube approach reaches two limits: (i) the occurrence of increasing shear stresses at filler contents above 20% due to deviations of EV arrangements or spatial filler distribution from cubic arrangements (singular), and (ii) increasing interaction between particles with the formation of particle network within the matrix violating the EV assumption of their homogeneous dispersion.

Introduction of Matrix-Filler Adhesion to Modelling of Elastic Moduli of Particulate Composites
(2022)

Cube in cube elementary volume (EV) concept serves to predict a filler-content dependent Young´s moduli of particle filled composites using moduli of a matrix EM and a filler EF. Paul and Ishai-Cohen derived formulas for composites moduli considering different load transfer boundaries in the EV assuming a complete filler-matrix adhesion. In this paper it is confirmed that their models represent the upper and lower bounds, respectively, with the respect to the experimental data. However, in vast majority of composites a filler-matrix adhesion is not complete. Therefore, an adhesion factor kadh gaining values between 0 and 1 was introduced into Paul´s model to consider the reduced adhesion as the reduction of the filler-matrix contact area for glass beads filled in polar and unpolar thermoplastic matrices as well as elastomer. The evaluation of these composite systems provides reasonable adhesion coefficients of PA66 > PBT > PP > PE-LD >> BR. It was also found that stiffening only occurs if kadh exceeds the minimum value adhesion of root square of E(M) divided by E(F). The determined kadh correspond to scanning electron microscopy observations of the composites fracture surfaces. Additionally, finite element analysis of the cubic and hexagonal arrangements of the EV show that the stress distributions are different, but they affect the calculated moduli only for the filler volume contents exceeding 20 %. The introduction of the filler-matrix adhesion provides more reliable predictions of Young´s moduli of particulate composites.

The cube in cube approach was used by Paul and Ishai-Cohen to model and derive formulas for filler content dependent Young´s moduli of particle filled composites assuming perfect filler matrix adhesion. Their formulas were chosen because of their simplicity, recalculated using an elementary volume approach which transforms spherical inclusions to cubic inclusions. The EV approach led to expression for the composites moduli that allow for introducing an adhesion factor kadh ranging from 0 and 1 to take into account none perfect reduced filler matrix adhesion. This adhesion factor scales the edge length of the cubic inclusions, thus, reducing the stress transfer area between matrix and filler. Fitting the experimental data with the modified Paul model provides reasonable kadh for PA66, PBT, PP, PE-LD and BR which are in line with their surface energies. Further analysis showed that stiffening only occurs if kadh exceeds <span class="math-tex">\( { \ \sqrt{E^M/E^F} \ }\) and depends on the ratio of matrix modulus and filler modulus. The modified model allows for a quick calculation of any particle filled composites for known matrix modulus EM, filler modulus EF, filler volume content vF and adhesion factor kadh. Thus, finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of any particle filled polymer parts as well as materials selection are significantly eased. FEA of cubic and hexagonal EV arrangements show that stress distributions within the EV exhibit more shear stresses if one deviates from the cubic arrangement. At high filler contents the assumption that the property of the EV is representative for the whole composite, holds only for filler volume contents up to 15 or 20 % (corresponding to 30 to 40 weight %). Thus, for vast majority of commercially available particulate composites, the modified model can be applied. Furthermore, this indicates that the cube in cube approach reaches two limits: i) the occurrence of increasing shear stresses at filler contents above 20 % due to deviations of EV arrangements or spatial filler distribution from cubic arrangements (singular), and ii) increasing interaction between particles with the formation of particle network within the matrix violating the EV assumption of their homogeneous dispersion.