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Long-term variability of solar irradiance and its implications for photovoltaic power in West Africa
(2020)

This paper addresses long-term changes in solar irradiance for West Africa (3° N to 20° N and 20° W to 16° E) and its implications for photovoltaic power systems. Here we use satellite irradiance (Surface Solar Radiation Data Set-Heliosat, Edition 2.1, SARAH-2.1) to derive photovoltaic yields. Based on 35 years of data (1983–2017) the temporal and regional variability as well as long-term trends of global and direct horizontal irradiance are analyzed. Furthermore, at four locations a detailed time series analysis is undertaken. The dry and the wet season are considered separately.
According to the high resolved SARAH-2.1 data record (0.05° x 0.05°), solar irradiance is largest (with up to 300 W/m² daily average) in the Sahara and the Sahel zone with a positive trend (up to 5 W/m²/decade) and a lower variability (< 75 W/m²). Whereas, the solar irradiance is lower in southern West Africa (between 200 W/m² and 250 W/m²) with a negative trend (up to −5 W/m²/decade) and a higher variability (up to 150 W/m²). The positive trend in the North is mostly connected to the dry season, while the negative trend in the South occurs during the wet season. PV yields show a strong meridional gradient with lowest values around 4 kWh/kWp in southern West Africa and reach more than 5.5 kWh/kWp in the Sahara and Sahel zone.

Solving diﬀerential-algebraic equations (DAEs) eﬃciently by means of appropriate numerical schemes for time-integration is an ongoing topic in applied mathematics. In this context, especially when considering large systems that occur with respect to many ﬁelds of practical application eﬀective computation becomes relevant. In particular, corresponding examples are given when having to simulate network structures that consider transport of ﬂuid and gas or electrical circuits. Due to the stiﬀness properties of DAEs, time-integration of such problems generally demands for implicit strategies. Among the schemes that prove to be an adequate choice are linearly implicit Rung-Kutta methods in the form of Rosenbrock-Wanner (ROW) schemes. Compared to fully implicit methods, they are easy to implement and avoid the solution of non-linear equations by including Jacobian information within their formulation. However, Jacobian calculations are a costly operation. Hence, necessity of having to compute the exact Jacobian with every successful time-step proves to be a considerable drawback. To overcome this drawback, a ROW-type method is introduced that allows for non-exact Jacobian entries when solving semi-explicit DAEs of index one. The resulting scheme thus enables to exploit several strategies for saving computational eﬀort. Examples include using partial explicit integration of non-stiﬀ components, utilizing more advantageous sparse Jacobian structures or making use of time-lagged Jacobian information. In fact, due to the property of allowing for non-exact Jacobian expressions, the given scheme can be interpreted as a generalized ROW-type method for DAEs. This is because it covers many diﬀerent ROW-type schemes known from literature. To derive the order conditions of the ROW-type method introduced, a theory is developed that allows to identify occurring diﬀerentials and coeﬃcients graphically by means of rooted trees. Rooted trees for describing numerical methods were originally introduced by J.C. Butcher. They signiﬁcantly simplify the determination and deﬁnition of relevant characteristics because they allow for applying straightforward procedures. In fact, the theory presented combines strategies used to represent ROW-type methods with exact Jacobian for DAEs and ROW-type methods with non-exact Jacobian for ODEs. For this purpose, new types of vertices are considered in order to describe occurring non-exact elementary diﬀerentials completely. The resulting theory thus automatically comprises relevant approaches known from literature. As a consequence, it allows to recognize order conditions of familiar methods covered and to identify new conditions. With the theory developed, new sets of coeﬃcients are derived that allow to realize the ROW-type method introduced up to orders two and three. Some of them are constructed based on methods known from literature that satisfy additional conditions for the purpose of avoiding eﬀects of order reduction. It is shown that these methods can be improved by means of the new order conditions derived without having to increase the number of internal stages. Convergence of the resulting methods is analyzed with respect to several academic test problems. Results verify the theory determined and the order conditions found as only schemes satisfying the order conditions predicted preserve their order when using non-exact Jacobian expressions.

The need for innovation around the control functions of inverters is great. PV inverters were initially expected to be passive followers of the grid and to disconnect as soon as abnormal conditions happened. Since future power systems will be dominated by generation and storage resources interfaced through inverters these converters must move from following to forming and sustaining the grid. As “digital natives” PV inverters can also play an important role in the digitalisation of distribution networks. In this short review we identified a large potential to make the PV inverter the smart local hub in a distributed energy system. At the micro level, costs and coordination can be improved with bidirectional inverters between the AC grid and PV production, stationary storage, car chargers and DC loads. At the macro level the distributed nature of PV generation means that the same devices will support both to the local distribution network and to the global stability of the grid. Much success has been obtained in the former. The later remains a challenge, in particular in terms of scaling. Yet there is some urgency in researching and demonstrating such solutions. And while digitalisation offers promise in all control aspects it also raises significant cybersecurity concerns.

In complex, expensive optimization domains we often narrowly focus on finding high performing solutions, instead of expanding our understanding of the domain itself. But what if we could quickly understand the complex behaviors that can emerge in said domains instead? We introduce surrogate-assisted phenotypic niching, a quality diversity algorithm which allows to discover a large, diverse set of behaviors by using computationally expensive phenotypic features. In this work we discover the types of air flow in a 2D fluid dynamics optimization problem. A fast GPU-based fluid dynamics solver is used in conjunction with surrogate models to accurately predict fluid characteristics from the shapes that produce the air flow. We show that these features can be modeled in a data-driven way while sampling to improve performance, rather than explicitly sampling to improve feature models. Our method can reduce the need to run an infeasibly large set of simulations while still being able to design a large diversity of air flows and the shapes that cause them. Discovering diversity of behaviors helps engineers to better understand expensive domains and their solutions.

Network aggregation
(2020)

Demand forecast
(2020)

Abschlussbericht zum BMBF-Fördervorhaben Enabling Infrastructure for HPC-Applications (EI-HPC)
(2020)

This work thoroughly investigates a semi-Lagrangian lattice Boltzmann (SLLBM) solver for compressible flows. In contrast to other LBM for compressible flows, the vertices are organized in cells, and interpolation polynomials up to fourth order are used to attain the off-vertex distribution function values. Differing from the recently introduced Particles on Demand (PoD) method , the method operates in a static, non-moving reference frame. Yet the SLLBM in the present formulation grants supersonic flows and exhibits a high degree of Galilean invariance. The SLLBM solver allows for an independent time step size due to the integration along characteristics and for the use of unusual velocity sets, like the D2Q25, which is constructed by the roots of the fifth-order Hermite polynomial. The properties of the present model are shown in diverse example simulations of a two-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex, a Sod shock tube, a two-dimensional Riemann problem and a shock-vortex interaction. It is shown that the cell-based interpolation and the use of Gauss-Lobatto-Chebyshev support points allow for spatially high-order solutions and minimize the mass loss caused by the interpolation. Transformed grids in the shock-vortex interaction show the general applicability to non-uniform grids.

This work introduces a semi-Lagrangian lattice Boltzmann (SLLBM) solver for compressible flows (with or without discontinuities). It makes use of a cell-wise representation of the simulation domain and utilizes interpolation polynomials up to fourth order to conduct the streaming step. The SLLBM solver allows for an independent time step size due to the absence of a time integrator and for the use of unusual velocity sets, like a D2Q25, which is constructed by the roots of the fifth-order Hermite polynomial. The properties of the proposed model are shown in diverse example simulations of a Sod shock tube, a two-dimensional Riemann problem and a shock-vortex interaction. It is shown that the cell-based interpolation and the use of Gauss-Lobatto-Chebyshev support points allow for spatially high-order solutions and minimize the mass loss caused by the interpolation. Transformed grids in the shock-vortex interaction show the general applicability to non-uniform grids.

AErOmAt Abschlussbericht
(2020)

Das Projekt AErOmAt hatte zum Ziel, neue Methoden zu entwickeln, um einen erheblichen Teil aerodynamischer Simulationen bei rechenaufwändigen Optimierungsdomänen einzusparen. Die Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg (H-BRS) hat auf diesem Weg einen gesellschaftlich relevanten und gleichzeitig wirtschaftlich verwertbaren Beitrag zur Energieeffizienzforschung geleistet. Das Projekt führte außerdem zu einer schnelleren Integration der neuberufenen Antragsteller in die vorhandenen Forschungsstrukturen.

Design ist allgegenwärtig - es durchtränkt gleichsam das Leben, oftmals unbewusst, doch immer durchscheinend und folgenhaft. Es ist Bestandteil des Habitus und unverzichtbarer Teil einer jeden Identität. Selbst im bewussten Verzicht auf Design kommt eine spezifische Designästhetik zum Ausdruck, die anders sein möchte. Doch welche Normierungen greifen hier und dienen als Orientierung für Absetzbewegungen? Dies zeigt sich vor allem in der Prägung durch massenmediale Diskurse. Die Beiträge des Bandes entwickeln zu diesem zentralen Dispositiv einen theoretischen wie praktischen Rahmen und reflektieren Indikatoren für entsprechende Leistungen.