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First insights in perception of feet and lower-body stimuli for proximity and collision feedback in 3D user interfaces

  • The visual and auditory quality of computer-mediated stimuli for virtual and extended reality (VR/XR) is rapidly improving. Still, it remains challenging to provide a fully embodied sensation and awareness of objects surrounding, approaching, or touching us in a 3D environment, though it can greatly aid task performance in a 3D user interface. For example, feedback can provide warning signals for potential collisions (e.g., bumping into an obstacle while navigating) or pinpointing areas where one’s attention should be directed to (e.g., points of interest or danger). These events inform our motor behaviour and are often associated with perception mechanisms associated with our so-called peripersonal and extrapersonal space models that relate our body to object distance, direction, and contact point/impact. We will discuss these references spaces to explain the role of different cues in our motor action responses that underlie 3D interaction tasks. However, providing proximity and collision cues can be challenging. Various full-body vibration systems have been developed that stimulate body parts other than the hands, but can have limitations in their applicability and feasibility due to their cost and effort to operate, as well as hygienic considerations associated with e.g., Covid-19. Informed by results of a prior study using low-frequencies for collision feedback, in this paper we look at an unobtrusive way to provide spatial, proximal and collision cues. Specifically, we assess the potential of foot sole stimulation to provide cues about object direction and relative distance, as well as collision direction and force of impact. Results indicate that in particular vibration-based stimuli could be useful within the frame of peripersonal and extrapersonal space perception that support 3DUI tasks. Current results favor the feedback combination of continuous vibrotactor cues for proximity, and bass-shaker cues for body collision. Results show that users could rather easily judge the different cues at a reasonably high granularity. This granularity may be sufficient to support common navigation tasks in a 3DUI.

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Document Type:Article
Author:Ernst Kruijff, Bernhard E. Riecke, Christina Trepkowski, Robert W. Lindeman
Parent Title (English):Frontiers in Virtual Reality
Article Number:954587
First Page:01
Last Page:22
Publisher:Frontiers Media
Place of publication:Lausanne
Publishing Institution:Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg
Date of first publication:2022/10/18
Copyright:© 2022 Kruijff, Riecke, Trepkowski and Lindeman. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
Funding:This work was partly supported by funding from the DAAD (57130136).
Keyword:3D user interface; Feedback; Perception; Proximity; collision; haptics; vibration
Departments, institutes and facilities:Fachbereich Informatik
Institute of Visual Computing (IVC)
Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC):0 Informatik, Informationswissenschaft, allgemeine Werke / 00 Informatik, Wissen, Systeme / 006 Spezielle Computerverfahren
1 Philosophie und Psychologie / 15 Psychologie / 152 Sinneswahrnehmung, Bewegung, Emotionen
Open access funding:Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg / Publikationsfonds / 2022 ff
Entry in this database:2022/10/20
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International