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Small Molecules Enhance Scaffold-Based Bone Grafts via Purinergic Receptor Signaling in Stem Cells

  • The need for bone grafts is high, due to age-related diseases, such as tumor resections, but also accidents, risky sports, and military conflicts. The gold standard for bone grafting is the use of autografts from the iliac crest, but the limited amount of accessible material demands new sources of bone replacement. The use of mesenchymal stem cells or their descendant cells, namely osteoblast, the bone-building cells and endothelial cells for angiogenesis, combined with artificial scaffolds, is a new approach. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be obtained from the patient themselves, or from donors, as they barely cause an immune response in the recipient. However, MSCs never fully differentiate in vitro which might lead to unwanted effects in vivo. Interestingly, purinergic receptors can positively influence the differentiation of both osteoblasts and endothelial cells, using specific artificial ligands. An overview is given on purinergic receptor signaling in the most-needed cell types involved in bone metabolism-namely osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, different types of scaffolds and their production methods will be elucidated. Finally, recent patents on scaffold materials, as wells as purinergic receptor-influencing molecules which might impact bone grafting, are discussed.

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Document Type:Article
Author:Patrick Frank Ottensmeyer, Markus Witzler, Margit Schulze, Edda Tobiasch
Parent Title (English):International Journal of Molecular Sciences
First Page:3601
Pubmed Id:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=30441872
Place of publication:Basel
Publishing Institution:Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg
Date of first publication:2018/11/14
© 2018 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.
Tag:angiogenesis; bone; drug release; mesenchymal stem cells; osteoblast; osteoclast; patent; purinergic receptors; scaffold
Departments, institutes and facilities:Fachbereich Angewandte Naturwissenschaften
Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC):5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 57 Biowissenschaften; Biologie / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
Entry in this database:2019/01/08
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International